Backgrounder: the History of the NRA/ALEC Gun Agenda

"We've endured too many of these tragedies in the past few years," President Obama said in response to horrifying shooting massacre of 20 little children and six of their educators in Connecticut.

Mark Fiore Shoot Em Up Charlie"Whether it is an elementary school in Newtown, or a shopping mall in Oregon, or a temple in Wisconsin, or a movie theater in Aurora, or a street corner in Chicago, these neighborhoods are our neighborhoods and these children are our children. And we're going to have to come together and take meaningful action to prevent more tragedies like this, regardless of the politics," he noted.

"Meaningful action" has been thwarted, largely because of the power and wealth of the National Rifle Association (NRA). One of the key avenues it has used to exert its influence is the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). For decades, the NRA has helped bankroll ALEC operations and even co-chaired ALEC's "Public Safety and Elections Task Force," where it secretly voted on bills alongside elected representatives. At ALEC's annual meeting this summer, the NRA had the biggest booth at the convention in Salt Lake City and also underwrote a shooting event along with one of the largest sellers of assault weapons in the world.

Numerous bills to bar or impede laws that would help protect Americans from gun violence were drafted by the NRA and adopted by ALEC corporations and legislators as "models" for the rest of the country. And, dozens of these special interest bills have become law in states across the country. As a result of the NRA's efforts, a city in Connecticut recently repealed the only ban in the state on carrying a concealed firearm. Allowing "concealed carry" has been a long-standing part of the NRA-ALEC agenda, passing in Wisconsin a year ago at the urging of Governor Scott Walker, who was given an award by the NRA for making this item law along with a version of the controversial ALEC-NRA "Stand Your Ground"/"Castle Doctrine" bill. A concealed carry law also was just passed last week in Michigan, along with the so-called "Right to Work" union-busting bill on ALEC's corporate wish list.

Here is a review of the NRA-by-way-of-ALEC gun agenda:

  • The retail sale of machine guns has been barred by federal law since the gangster era but, as uncovered by the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD), one year ago at ALEC's "policy summit" in Arizona, the NRA obtained unanimous support from the corporate and lawmaker members of ALEC's Task Force for "amending" ALEC's "Consistency in Firearms Regulation Act" to expressly bar cities from banning "machine guns." Other provisions of that bill prevent cities from banning armor-piercing bullets and from banning efforts to alter guns to make them more deadly if the state does not do so. It also bars cities from suing gun manufacturers for gun deaths based on the theory of liability used by governments to sue tobacco manufacturers for smoking deaths.
  • In 2008, as noted by CMD, in the aftermath of the tragic massacre of students and professors by a heavily armed Virginia Tech student, ALEC adopted a model bill to remove state prohibitions of guns on college campuses and to allow students to bring guns to class.
  • Also in 2008, as CMD has documented, ALEC also weighed in on litigation challenging a handgun ban in the city of Chicago. ALEC filed a brief with the U.S. Supreme Court in that case, McDonald v. Chicago, on the same side as the NRA.
  • In 2005, at an ALEC task force meeting co-chaired by Wal-Mart, corporate lobbyists and politicians voted to approve the NRA's request that a law it spearheaded in Florida with ALEC members become a "model" for other states.  That ALEC bill was misleadingly named the "Castle Doctrine," but is also known as the "Stand Your Ground" or "Shoot First" or "Kill at Will" law. That Florida law, was initially invoked by law enforcement to prevent the arrest and prosecution earlier this year of high-school student Trayvon Martin's killer. The law creates legal immunity for shooters claiming self-defense, going well beyond the reach of the traditional rights of self defense to create what some call a "license to kill."
  • CMD connected those dots and documented that the NRA's lobbyist Marion Hammer pushed this bill through the Florida legislature in early 2005. She then brought the law to the closed door ALEC task force meeting in Texas that summer to become a priority for ALEC legislators. According to the NRA at that time, her pitch was warmly received and "unanimously" adopted by the private and public sector members at that meeting. The list of special interest reps attending that meeting is not publicly available, but it is known that the nation's largest retailer of ammunition and long guns, Wal-Mart, was the corporate leader of that task force; earlier this year, Wal-Mart announced it was resigning from ALEC.
  • Also around that time, ALEC pushed a variety of legislation to require reciprocity between states for "concealed carry" laws, laws that result in more people carrying concealed firearms in public places, as CMD has noted.
  • In 2000, as CMD has reported, when Koch Industries was the chair of ALEC's corporate board, ALEC's crime task force adopted the "Defense of Free Market and Public Safety Resolution" as a national template for states across the country. That resolution was an effort to thwart law enforcement from using contracts -- to buy firearms for police officers -- to favor gun manufacturers that adhered to a code of conduct. As part of a lawsuit settlement, gun manufacturer Smith & Wesson (S&W) had agreed to penalize S&W retailers who sold guns that tended to end up used in crimes, barred S&W retailers from using the gun show loophole to avoid conducting criminal background checks on prospective buyers, and forbade dealers from releasing more than one handgun to a purchaser per day. It also required retailers to sell all of its handguns with mechanical trigger locks to help protect kids from accidentally killing themselves or others. ALEC's resolution sought to bar states from rewarding S&W with contracts for police weapons or creating an incentive for other gun manufacturers to adopt similar voluntary codes of conduct.
  • In 1995, ALEC promoted as model legislation a bill that would create state-based criminal background checks for firearms purchases different from the federal Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, which established the National Instant Check criminal background check system at the FBI. As analyzed by CMD, ALEC's bill expressly exempts firearms sales at gun shows from its background checks (creating a "gun show loophole"). It also exempts holders of "concealed carry" permits from a background check, even though the Brady Law attempts to protect the public through background checks regardless of whether a person had previously obtained a permit to carry a gun, such as from people who subsequently become fugitives or persons adjudicated to be mentally unstable.
  • As CMD has shown, ALEC also strongly opposed the 1994 "Assault Weapons Ban," which sought to expand the long-standing federal bar on fully automatic machine guns by preventing the purchase of rapid-firing "semi-automatic" assault-style weapons. Certain military-style firearms -- such as the .223 Bushmaster rifle reportedly found at the scene of the Connecticut school massacre and similar to the one used in the sniper shootings that terrorized D.C. in 2003 -- include versions for sale in the U.S. that were modified by manufacturers for the civilian market along with versions that allow three-shot bursts of fire with each pull of the trigger for law enforcement rather than their faster-firing military-style kin like an M4 or AK-47, in light of the federal assault weapons ban. The ban was allowed to expire during the George W. Bush administration, which had very close ties to the NRA.

The NRA's gun agenda helps protect and expand the market for the firearms sold by the weapons companies that bankroll its multi-million dollar lobbying and influence operations. Although ALEC's crime task force no longer officially exists, ALEC is doing nothing to undo the damage done through its many years of advancing the wish list of the gun industry through laws like "Stand Your Ground"/"Shoot First," pushing for guns on college campuses, and even opposing government purchasers from rewarding codes of conduct by gun makers and sellers.

NRA BarbecueThree months after ALEC issued a PR statement that it was eliminating its Public Safety and Elections Task Force, the NRA announced that it would still be hosting its regular annual shooting event at ALEC's summer convention, held in July of this year. For the past several years, on the Saturday of ALEC's annual meeting, the NRA has regularly hosted an outing for ALEC legislators and lobbyists to go shooting together -- with complimentary guns and ammo. July's event was co-sponsored by Browning Arms Company, whose foreign parent company is one of the world's largest sellers of machine guns, as noted by CMD.

"Calling for 'meaningful action' is not enough," said New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, founder and co-chair of Mayors Against Illegal Guns. "We need immediate action. We have heard all the rhetoric before. What we have not seen is leadership -- not from the White House and not from Congress. That must end today. This is a national tragedy and it demands a national response."

Facts are still coming in about how the 20-year-old shooter -- who under Connecticut law is too young to possess the pistols he was found with -- came to use the assault weapon fired repeatedly and rapidly in the assault on the school children, or why his mother (who was apparently also shot to death by him) reportedly brought or allowed such an arsenal of weapons into the home she shared with her son, who has been called "mentally ill." But, some observers are pointing out the terrible coincidence of a knife attack that injured 22 students in China within a day of these 20 American school children being murdered in a matter of minutes by a gunman in Connecticut, which shows yet again that the ready availability of guns in the U.S. can be the difference between life and death. And easing access to deadly firearms has been a major part of the NRA/ALEC agenda, underwritten by ALEC corporations and advanced by ALEC politicians, for years and years.

The library of NRA/ALEC gun bills can be accessed here.

CMD's Brendan Fischer contributed to this report.

Lisa Graves is Executive Director of the Center for Media and Democracy ( and She formerly served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Office of Legal Policy at the U.S. Department of Justice where she handled national gun policy and was the Managing Editor of the National Integrated Firearms Violence Reduction Strategy. She also served as the Chief Counsel for Nominations for the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, as a Deputy Chief at the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, and as an adjunct professor of law.

Lisa Graves

Lisa Graves is President of the Board of the Center for Media and Democracy and President of True North Research. She is a well-known researcher, writer, and public speaker. Her research and analysis have been cited by every major paper in the country and featured in critically acclaimed books and documentaries, including Ava Du Vernay’s award-winning film, “The 13th,” Bill Moyers’s “United States of ALEC,” and Showtime’s “Years of Living Dangerously.”



This story about Meli confronting the Clackamas Mall shooter was reported by Meli to a local TV station and repeated on every right wing and gun rights website, but was apparently unnoticed by any witnesses, not reported to the police, and not corroborated by any legitimate news organization.

Wherever you got your "a man with a concealed firearm confronted the gunman" information is COMPLETELY FALSE! I live in Portland about 5 miles from that mall. Early and subsequently confirmed reports say, he stole the gun, and randomly massacred two innocent people. I'm sure he would have tried for more, but the size and scope of the terrain is most likely what hindered his attempts. No one knows why, and NO ONE came forward to explain that he 'confronted the gunman'... he was found in a back room stairwell gunshot to the head, fully (in my opinion) intending to commit these crimes and end his life as well, regardless of whether your mythical hero intimidated him. I call BS on your claim.

About 25,000 PEOPLE DIE EVERY DAY of hunger or hunger-related causes DUE TO POVERTY which is also closely correlated with violence. This is one person every three and a half seconds, and it is children who die most often. Where is the outrage spurring you to end economic inequality worldwide? Hypocrites, all of you. Also, the shooter was NOT representative of gun owners, and if you took a moment to think, you would know that. I made a video about it, and it’s at my YouTube channel Zarrakan, and here’s the name: 2012 12 16 ZOC Shooting For Reponsibility Part 1 Watch it, share it, and join the fight against the evil anti-gun movement.

The issue is not who is a hypocrite... The agenda is not to make anyone hypocrites by exacting polices that protect the innocent. I am not against having a gun by taking away the right to bear arms. I am for every law possible that saves innocent lives. How that comes about I believe is through honest dialogue and if a new law(s) diminishes the possibility of innocent people be murdered and limits access to the wrong parts of society obtaining weapons, then I'm interested in that conversation. I see no benefit in shutting down the dialogue in advance that may have the potential for a safer society. Yes, there are starving people out there that needs resolution too.

<blockquote>Also, the shooter was NOT representative of gun owners..."</blockquote> <p>As far as we know, the shooter wasn't an owner at all; it was his mom who owned those guns. <p>Was she representative? I'm guessing she thought so, and I'm guessing she considered herself the very model of responsible gun ownership. Nonetheless, her negligence in keeping those guns and all that ammo, in a house she shared with a son with a troubled history, enabled those killings, her own first.</p> <p>The pro-gun side talks about Connecticut's "strict gun laws," but Newtown was already well along in being taken over by gun nuts:</p> <p> </p> <blockquote>...Yet recent efforts by the police chief and other town leaders to gain some control over the shooting and the weaponry turned into a tumultuous civic fight, with traditional hunters and discreet gun owners opposed by assault weapon enthusiasts, and a modest tolerance for bearing arms competing with the staunch views of a gun industry trade association, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, which has made Newtown its home. </blockquote> <p>If you're "shooting for responsibility" you need to aim better.</p>

Whether the guy was a typical gun owner, or even whether he could legally own a gun isn't the issue at hand. It's the ubiquity and presence of guns among "typical" owners that assures it wont take long for someone doing B&Es on houses, businesses, or cars, to find some "typical" owners arsenal. This also ignores the simple fact that more people are killed with their own gun than house invaders, armed robbers, or muggers die in the commission of a crime against those same gun owners. The point is....guns make it far too easy, far to quickly, for someone suffering a momentary lapse in rational judgement due to the sort of emotionally jarring event that can happen to all of us, given the right circumstances. Like being armed with a concealed carry license, losing your job meaning losing the house, having several drinks to ease the shame and guilt of telling the wife, only to find her in bed with a neighbor when you get home. It would take a strong person to not.. at least have the /notion/ of killing somebody cross a person's mind. And that's only one of a thousand possible scenarios where a firearm in the hands of someone who is a "typical" gun owner, but who is now on a path toward a massacre. Whereas if they only had access to a knife or a bow, one maybe two people might die before the rest escape and police show up. Criminals tend to kill other criminals with guns, so the "only criminals will have guns" excuse is pointless. Law-abiding citizens are killed by other law-abiding citizens more often than by criminals with guns. It's the neighbor or fellow worker who snaps for one reason or another that engage in these massacres OR one family member kills another mistaking them for a burglar, or is shot due to careless storage or handling.

As a child, seeing guns hanging in the gun racks on the wall was common. These weren't locked away, nor did anyone of us kids dare touch any of them. My mom has always keep loaded weapons throughout the home - as does the rest of the family, except me due to having a mentally ill child not for fear of them hurting others but themselves. We consider it our right, however none of the 100 cousin's or relatives agree with the need for owning an AR. We all agree these should be BANNED. Yes, I have shot the AR's many times as both military and a civilian - however, I see no need for civilian's to own AR's. I am all for banning AR's and most of the general public for the simple reason when we say you have a right to protect yourself, none would expect you would need one to protect yourself from 50+ people - but at the most 5, but more commonly 1 - which you don't need an AR for 1. That is really responsible ownership!

Every day I see stupidity displayed in the way people drive. If people are too stupid to operate a motor vehicle safely, why would they would be any smarter or safer handling a firearm.

I totally agree about irresponsible drivers and people who own guns. I have almost been hit by cars while walking across the steet several times because drivers cannot pay attention. Besides, who needs 3 guns to protect yourself and defintiely not with 100 rounds! Who are you protecting yourself against??? Let's get real here people! If there were no guns at all there would be no mass killings. Get it???? We need stricter laws and background checks on everyone!!!! We need to do a better job with people who are mentally ill or have other issues so that these things won't happen on the average of every two weeks! Also movies need to be responsible. I don't recall the movie that was out a month or more ago about two guys who were killers. How can we make these movies? Also video games that promote shooting and killing. Also all these violent TV shows. Perhaps all this overload of violence has desensitized our youth and make them feel it is okay to shoot people. Perhaps due to the shows, movies and games they no longer have empathy, sympathy or a conscience. Those that live in a fantasy world of their own also are susceptible to doing such heinous acts of violence. Get it NRA???

<p>Just saw LaPierre's Shock & Outrage performance.</p> <p>Upshot: Blame it on crazy monsters, blame it on the media, blame it on video games, blame it on everybody but us, the people who are actually pouring more and more guns into this already gun-saturated country for the crazies to pick up!</p> <p>Put Good Guys with Guns in all the schools. That way you can feel your kids are protected while we keep out money pumps running by selling more and more guns!</p> <p>Shock and outrage indeed. It must have come as a shock to La Pierre that the backlash after Sandy Hook might rise to more than just a routine damage control exercise.</p>